Language Gap

Observation for the Measurement of the Environment) inventory. The HOME inventory investigates the maternal warmth, play material, role of parents and verbal responsivity. Stable Rich HLFs have the greatest effect on kindergarten literacy skill. Early HLF influenced Kindergarten’s vocabulary and knowledge. These Kindergarten pre reading skills determine these reading skills at grade 2.The HLF is not only important for language but it is also important and play pivotal role in cognitive skills. The role of mother-child interactions is essential in HLF too. If maternal health is not good such as maternal depression it changes the home literacy environment. So mother literacy and financial independence is important.

In the Magill- Evans study, both mother-spouse and child mother relationships were influential in language development. So stressful condition in home environment influence language and cognition.


Literacy environment also effects the development. Stress is also linked to communication and language development. For instance: parental use of language such as reading in leisure time or storytelling to children effect cognitive and language development.  Usually in low socioeconomic status parents are uneducated they do not interact with them in variety of ways , they do not use different vocabulary and  they do not take them out to the social events and gatherings , so such children learn less than their peers who belong to high class.

SES refers to one’s access to financial, educational and social resources, and the social positioning, privileges and prestige that are derived from these resources. (Mueller & Parcel 1981, Entwisle & Astone 1994, Duncan et al. 2015).

One of the strongest prediction of children’s vocabulary is adult communication with child (Hart and Risley, 1995). The communication skills a child acquires are affected by many variables including the child’s socioeconomic status (Hart and Risely, 1995; Walker et al., 1994). Children from lower SES homes hear far fewer words than their more advantaged peers, putting them at risk for speech and reading delays (Hart & Risely, 1995).

Children living in poverty are exposed to a variety of toxic stressors, such as food insecurity, abuse and neglect, as well as have limited educational resources and opportunities. There children are at higher risk of mental and physical health problems. (Brooks-Gunn-& Duncan 1997, Shankoff 2000).

At home such children face violence, separation in family members and instability. (Evans 2004). More than half of low income mothers with infants have some form of depression and 11% have severe depression.(Vericker 2010).Mothers with higher levels of stress and depression talk less with their children (Lovejoy et al.2000), and have children with slower vocabulary growth (Pan et al. 2005).

At school, children from low income families have higher grade repetition rates and are seven times more likely to drop out of high school than their peers from high income families (Brooks-Gunn & Puncan 1997, Chapman et al. 2011).  Many studies have showed the lifelong negative impacts of poverty on developmental outcomes including brain structure; mental and physical health; and language, behavioural, cognitive and emotional development (Blair & Raver 2012, Shankoff et al.2012)

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