Does low socio economic status affect on the health of children?

Children from low SES are more likely to face health retardation. They are more likely to born prematurely at very low weight, a birth defect, a disability or AIDS. Early health problems comes from poor nutrition, poor parental care and maternal drug usage during pregnancy .Such drug usage may cause infections in child. If mothers are living in such areas where environment is toxic such as toxic waste dumps (US Dep. Health & Human Services 2000a).After birth, low SES infants are more likely to suffer injuries and to die (Coverpeck et al. 1998, Scholar et al 1999). During childhood due to low SES it may cause respiratory illness. (Cohen 1999, Haan et al. 1998, Johnston-Brooks et al. 1998, Klerman 1991, Rosenbaum 1992). Low SES may cause dental problems, high B.P and iron deficiency etc. These diseases and infections may cause due to inadequate health care because of low economic status (US Dep. Health & Human services2000 a, b;Pollit et al. 1990;Raisler et al. 1999;Sandel & Schrtstein 1999).

When low SES children experience health problems, the consequences are more severe. If children are not having proper health care environment, they may have long term consequences (Bradley et al. 1994). For instance premature children who live in poverty for first three years, they face problems in their growth, health status. Intelligence and behaviour.

Children with high lead levels are at greater risk of neurological disorders (Needleman et al. 1990); and low- birth weight children who also had prenatal illnesses experiences more school failure (McGauhey et al. 1991).

 

 

There is relationship between SES and intellectual and academic competencies. Mc Call (1981) presented evidence that the association between SES and cognitive performance in infancy. Many studies showed that poverty and low parental education are connected with lower IQ level and school achievements later in childhood (Alexanderet al. 1993, Bloom 1964, Duncan et al. 1994, Escalona 1982, Hees et al. 1982, Pianta et al. 1990, Walberg & Majorbanks 1976, Zill et al. 1995). Kennedy and colleagues (1963) studied on African American children to represent African American living. The mean IQ of the highest SES group was 25 points greater than mean of the lowest SES group.

Few researches have worked on the relation between parental profession and intellectual progress development. Parcel and Menaghan (1990) found that mother who worked with variety of tasks and problem solving opportunities provided more warmth and acceptance. There children contained more advance verbal competence. Such results are consistent with classical argument of Kohan & Schooler (1982); what parents experience at work, they put it into their style of parenting.

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