He thought that development occurs in stages and children learn to perform different tasks at different ages. As opposed to this Vygotsky believed that:
For development of cognition there must be interaction between child and world around him .Hence, cognition develops in interaction with society it is understood as social cognition.
After the birth of child there are critical period related to development of nervous system –specific weeks and months during which child needs to encounter certain experience for the fully and normal development of nervous system. For instance, the period from 6-12 months of age may be sensitive for the formation of core attachment to the parents. Similarly, other period may be particularly significant for intellectual or language development (Tamis – LeMonda& Bornstein ,1987).
Overwhalle (2009) said:
“Broadly includes the cognitive process used to understand and store information about other persons including the self and about interpersonal norms and scripts to navigate efficiently in the social world.”
The OECD has launched the International Early Learning and Child Well- being study, recognising the impact that children’s early learning has on their later outcomes. According to the study;
The first 4-5 years of children’s life are very critical. During this period child learn at very fast rate than at any other time of their lives. During this time period basic cognitive and socio-economic skills develop that are fundamental for their future achievements in school and later on as an adult. And in order to stimulate this development, children require ongoing interaction with care and attention from their parents.
For this reason early childhood education care (ECEC) also plays important role. Research findings shows that the high quality ECEC programmes provide long –term benefits. There is growing interest in enhancing the quality of ECEC programmes and children’s home environment in order to give child a strong start.